Bogs are the most common type of wetland in northern Canada, especially in arctic and subarctic regions. In fact, bogs are very common across the entire northern hemisphere in previously glaciated areas. Bogs are characterized by substantial peat accumulation (> 40 cm), high water tables and acidic loving vegetation. There are no significant inflows or outflows of water from a bog, resulting in stagnant, unproductive environments. Canada possesses 35% of the world's peat accumulating wetlands, termed peatlands.

Bogs are covered with a layer of floating vegetation which may look like solid ground. However, it is easy to fall through the bog surface into the pit of water below. In 1950, a sacrificial victim who was buried more than 2000 years ago in a Danish bog was found with his clothes and hair intact. As this case makes clear, the process of decay is slowed in bog environments.