General and Biological References:

Allaby, M. (Ed.) 1999. Oxford dictionary of zoology. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

American Museum of Natural History. 1945. The Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol. 84. Order of the Trustees, New York.

Angel, M.V. 1993. Marine planktonic ostracods. Field Studies Council, Shrewsbury.

Barnes, Robert D. 1987. Invertebrate Zoology. CBS Publishing, New York.

Behrens, D.W. 1980. Pacific Coast Nudibranchs: a guide to the opisthobranchs of the Northeastern Pacific. Sea Challengers, Los Osos.

Bergquist, P.R. 1978. Sponges. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Black, M.B., Halanych, K.M., Maas, P.A.Y., Hoeh, W.R., Hashimoto, J., Desbruyeres, D., Lutz, R.A. and Vrijenhock, R.C. 1997. Molecular systematics of vestimentiferan tubeworms from hydrothermal vents and cold-water seeps. Marine Biology 130(2): 141-149.

Bleakney, J.S. 1996. Sea slugs of Atlantic Canada and the Gulf of Maine. Nimbus Publishing and The Nova Scotia Museum, Halifax.

Brusca, Gary J. 1990. Invertebrates. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.

Campbell, Neil A. 1996. Biology: 4th edition. The Benjamin/Cummings publishing company, Inc., California.

Carson, R. 1980. The Huntsman collection (Urochordata: Ascidiacea) at the Royal Ontario Museum. The Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto.

Cary, S.C., Shank, T. and Stein, J. 1998. Worms bask in extreme temperatures. Nature 391(6667): 545-546.

Chapelle, G. and Peck, L.S. 1999. Polar gigantism dictated by oxygen availability. Nature 399(6732): 114-115.

Dales, R.P. 1967. Annelids. Hutchinson and Co., Ltd., London.

Emig, C.C. 1997. Les lophophorates constituent-ils un embranchement? Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. 122(3): 279-288.

Emschermann, P. 1993. Lime-twig glands: a unique invention of an Antarctic entoproct. Marine Biology Laboratory, Woods Hole 185(1): 97-108.

Garrison, T. 1996. Oceanography. Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont. pg. 140.

Harris, C.L. 1996. Concepts in Zoology. Harper Collins College Publishers, Inc., New York.

Harris, V.A. 1990. Sessile animals of the seashore. Chapman and Hall, London.

Harrison, F.W. and Westfall, J.A. (Eds.) 1991. Microscopic anatomy of invertebrates, Volume 2: Placozoa, Porifera, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora. Wiley-Liss, New York.

Hart, C.W. and Fuller, S.L.H. 1974. Pollution Ecology of Freshwater Invertebrates. Academic Press, New York.

Hatzioles, M.E. and Caldwell, R.L. 1983. Role reversal in courtship in the stomatopod Pseudosquilla ciliata (Crustacea). Animal Behaviour 31(4): 1077-1087.

Hoyle, G. 1987. The giant muscle cells of barnacles. In Barnacle Biology. Alan J. Southward (Ed.) A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. pp. 213-225.

Jones, A.M. and Baxter, J.M. 1987. Molluscs: Caudofoveata, Solenogastres, Polyplacophora and Scaphopoda : keys and notes for the identification of species. E.J. Brill, London.

Kaas,P. and Van Belle, R.A. 1985. Monograph of living chitons (Mollusca: Placophora). Vol. 1-5. E.J. Brill, Leiden.

King, Philip Ernest. 1973. Pycnogonids. Hutchinson, London.

Lawrence, J.M. 1987. A functional biology of echinoderms. Croom Helm, London.

MacKenzie, D. 1999. All change. New Scientist 161(2173): 12.

Meglitsch, P.A., and Schram, F.R. 1991. Invertebrate zoology (Third Edition). Oxford University Press, New York.

Merritt, R.W. and Cummins, K.W. 1996. An introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America (Third Edition). Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque.

Mestal, R. 1999. Drugs from the sea. Discover 20(3): 70-75.

Mill, P.J.(Ed.) 1978. Physiology of annelids. Academic Press, London.

Millar, R.H. 1966. Tunicata Ascidiacea. Scandinavian University Books, Oslo.

Milne, L. and Milne, M. 1972. Invertebrates of North America. Doubleday and Company, Inc., New York.

Najarian, H.H. 1976. Sex Lives of Animals Without Backbones. Charles Scribner's sons, New York.

Neumann, D and Jenner, H.A. 1992. The Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha: Ecology, biological monitoring and first applications in the water quality management . New York.

Nichols, D. 1969. Echinoderms. Hutchinson and Co., Ltd., London.

Nilsson-Cantell, Carl-August. 1978. Cirrepdia: Thoracica and Acrothoracica. Universitetsforlaget, Oslo.

Pain, S. 1996. Hostages of the deep. New Scientist 151(2047): 38-42.

Pennak, R. W. 1989. Fresh-Water Invertebrates of the United States (Protozoa to Mollusca -Third edition). John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.

Purchon, R.D. 1977. The biology of the mollusca (second edition). Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Ruppert, E.E. and Barnes, R.D. 1994. Invertebrate Zoology (Sixth Edition). Saunders College Publishing, Fort Worth.

San Juan, Airlan. 1999, August 13. The lurker's guide to stomatopods [Online]. Available: [1999, June]

Sawyer, R.T.1986. Leech Biology and Behaviour (Volume II: Feeding biology, Ecology , and Systematics). Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Shellenberger, J.S. and Ross, J.R.P. 1998. Antibacterial activity of two species of bryozoans from northern Puget Sound. Northwest Science 72(1): 23-33.

Stubbings, H.G. 1975. Balanus baloides. Liverpool University Press, Liverpool.

Thearle, M.J. 1998. Leeches in Medicine. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Surgery 68:292-295.

Thompson, T.E. 1976. Biology of opisthobranch molluscs. The Ray Society, London.

Thompson, T.E. and Brown, G.H. 1976. British opisthobranch molluscs. Academic Press, London.

Thorp, J.H., and Covich, A.P. 1991. Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego.

van Egmond, W. 1999, March 12. Bristle worms and their larva [Online]. Available: [1999, June]

Waikiki Aquarium Education Department. 1999. Marine life profile: sea cucumbers [Online]. Available: [1999, June]

Willmer, P. 1990. Invertebrate Relationships: Patterns in animal evolution. Cambridge University press, Cambridge.